The class material (including lecture slides, textbooks, literature, videos, etc) is made available online as the course progresses. The static course material (lecture slides, literature, etc) is available on Dropbox here. Recorded lectures are available on this YouTube channel. Content on both links will evolve through the semester.
This class will not use Brightspace.
The class is structured by "weeks" where each week covers a particular topic via approx. 1.5 hours of recorded lectures (think of these as happening on a Thursday, but really you can watch them whenever you like), the assigned paper for reading being provided, and a 1.5 hour discussion session via Zoom (each Tuesday). So, each "class week" will start in the middle of the calendar week with the availability of the lecture to view and paper to read, and end in the middle of the following calendar week after the corresponding discussion session.
Week 1 (Jan 6-12): Welcome and physical oceanography review
Assigned reading: Timmermans, M. L., & Marshall, J. (2020). Understanding Arctic Ocean Circulation: A Review of Ocean Dynamics in a Changing Climate. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 125(4) (pdf)
Week 2 (Jan 13-19): Sea ice composition and structure
Assigned reading: Ito, M., Fukamachi, Y., Ohshima, K. I., & Shirasawa, K. (2020). Observational evidence of supercooling and frazil ice formation throughout the water column in a coastal polynya in the Sea of Okhotsk. Continental Shelf Research, 196, 104072 (pdf)
Week 3 (Jan 20-26): Properties of sea ice and snow
Assigned reading: Steele, M., Zhang, J., Rothrock, D., & Stern, H. (1997). The force balance of sea ice in a numerical model of the Arctic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 102(C9), 21061-21079 (pdf)
Guest lecture by Dr. Clark Richards, Bedford Institute of Oceanography: Sea Ice Observing Methods (video, slides)
Assigned reading: Lindsay, R., & Schweiger, A. (2015). Arctic sea ice thickness loss determined using subsurface, aircraft, and satellite observations. The Cryosphere, 9(1), 269-283 (pdf)
Week 9 (Mar 10-16): Introduction to Polynyas
Lecture 1: Introduction to Polynyas (video, slides) Lecture 2: Conservation of Mass (video, slides) Lecture 3: Polynya Types and Physical Processes (video, slides)
Assigned reading: Smith, S. D., Muench, R. D., & Pease, C. H. (1990). Polynyas and leads: An overview of physical processes and environment. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 95(C6), 9461-9479 (pdf)
Week 10 (Mar 17-23): More on polynyas
Lectures: TBA Assigned reading: TBA
Week 11 (Mar 24-30): Indigenous perspectives on sea ice
Guest lecture by Prof. Claudio Aporta, Marine Affairs, Dalhousie University
Week 12 (Mar 31-Apr 6): Biogeochemistry of sea ice
Guest lecture by Benjamin Richaud, Dept. Oceanography, Dalhousie University Project Ideas
Look through literature folders on Dropbox
Ice crystal structure: See Chapters in Weeks or Shokr & Sinha textbooks.
Ice growth: Maykut and Untersteiner 1969, 1971, Maykut 1978, Curry and Ebert 1993 which extends the earlier models
Dynamical links between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans
Notz, D., & Worster, M. G. (2009). Desalination processes of sea ice revisited. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 114(C5), and
Shokr & Sinha Section 2.3.3 Salinity loss during ice growth
Feltham (2008) Sea ice rheology
Landfast ice, see papers by Jean-Francois Lemieux (notably the 2015 paper that outlines the landfast ice model parameterisation)
Ice bridge formation e.g.
Rallabandi, B., Zheng, Z., Winton, M., & Stone, H. A. (2017). Formation of sea ice bridges in narrow straits in response to wind and water stresses. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 122(7), 5588-5610.
Dumont, D., Gratton, Y., & Arbetter, T. E. (2009). Modeling the dynamics of the North Water polynya ice bridge. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 39(6), 1448-1461.
Measurements and comparisons of internal ice stress, wind stress, and current stress
Prinsenberg 1997 papers
Turbull et al. (2017) Relative influences of metocean forcings of the drifting ice pack, JGR